Payment & Shipping Terms:
|Product Name:||Electromechanical Tensile Testing Machine||Resolution:||1/500000|
|Maximum Force:||100kN||Crosshead Speed:||0.001 ~ 500mm/min|
|Standard:||ASTM E21||Accuracy:||Class 0.5|
Electromechanical Tensile Testing Machine 100kN floor standing type for composites wood metal tensile test ETM105D
The ETM type D Series addresses the needs of standardized and routine testing, providing the user high quality at the most affordable price. The dual column testing systems with rugged structure are suited for tension and/or compression applications with load range requirement. They are typically used for quality control and production testing.
Tension, bending, compression, tearing, shearing for Metals, building components, large fasteners, composites, wood products
Test standard: ASTM E21
1. These test methods cover procedure and equipment for the determination of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area of metallic materials at elevated temperatures.
2. Determination of modulus of elasticity and proportional limit are not included.
3. Tension tests under conditions of rapid heating or rapid strain rates are not included.
4. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
5. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM Standards: 2
E 4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E 6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specification E 74 Practice for Calibration of Force Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing Machines
E 83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometers System
E 177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E 220 Test Method for Calibration of Thermocouples by Comparison Techniques
E 633 Guide for Use of Thermocouples in Creep and Stress Rupture Testing to 1800°F (1000°C) in Air
E 691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
1. The accuracy of the testing machine shall be within the permissible variation specified in Practices E 4.
2 Precaution should be taken to assure that the force on the specimens is applied as axially as possible. Perfect axial alignment is difficult to obtain especially when the pull rods and extensometer rods pass through packing at the ends of the furnace. However, the machine and grips should be capable of loading a precisely made specimen so that the maximum bending strain does not exceed 10 % of the axial strain, when
the calculations are based on strain readings taken at zero force and at the lowest force for which the machine is being qualified.
NOTE 1—This requirement is intended to limit the maximum contribution of the testing apparatus to the bending which occurs during a test. It is recognized that even with qualified apparatus different tests may have
quite different percent bending strain due to chance orientation of a loosely fitted specimen, lack of symmetry of that particular specimen,lateral force from furnace packing, and thermocouple wire, etc. The scant
evidence available at this time3 indicates that the effect of bending strain on test results is not sufficient, except in special cases, to require the measurement of this quantity on each specimen tested.
In testing of brittle material even a bending strain of 10 % may result in lower strength than would be obtained with improved axiality. In these cases, measurements of bending strain on the specimen to be tested may be specifically requested and the permissible magnitude limited to a smaller value.
In general, equipment is not available for determining maximum bending strain at elevated temperatures. The testing apparatus may be qualified by measurements of axiality made at room temperature using the assembled machine, pull rods, and grips used in high temperature testing. The specimen form should be the same as that used during the elevatedtemperature tests and designed so that only elastic strains occur
throughout the reduced section. This requirement may necessitate use of a material different from that used during the elevated-temperature test. See Practice E 1012 for recommended methods for determining specimen alignment.
3. Gripping devices and pull rods may oxidize, warp, and creep with repeated use at elevated temperatures. Increased bending stresses may result. Therefore, grips and pull rods should be periodically retested for axiality and reworked when necessary.
4. The testing machine shall be equipped with a means of measuring and controlling either the strain rate or the rate of crosshead motion or both to meet the requirements in 9.6.
5. For high-temperature testing of materials that are readily attacked by their environment (such as oxidation of metal in air), the specimen may be enclosed in a capsule so that it can be tested in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. When such equipment is used, the necessary corrections must be made to determine the actual forces seen by the specimen. For instance, compensation must be made for differences in pressures inside and outside of the capsule and for any variation in the forces applied to the specimen due to sealing ring friction, bellows or other features.
The apparatus for and method of heating the specimens should provide the temperature control necessary to satisfy the requirements specified in 9.4.
Heating shall be by an electric resistance or radiation furnace with the specimen in air at atmospheric pressure unless other media are specifically agreed upon in advance.
The method of temperature measurement must be sufficiently sensitive and reliable to ensure that the temperature of the specimen is within the limits specified in 9.4.4.
Temperature should be measured with thermocouples in conjunction with the appropriate temperature indicating instrumentation.
NOTE 3—Such measurements are subject to two types of error. Thermocouple calibration and instrument measuring errors initially introduce uncertainty as to the exact temperature. Secondly both thermocouples and measuring instruments may be subject to variation with time. Common errors encountered in the use of thermocouples to measure temperatures include: calibration error, drift in calibration due to contamination or deterioration with use, lead-wire error, error arising from method of attachment to the specimen, direct radiation of heat to the bead, heatconduction along thermocouple wires, etc.
Temperature measurements should be made with thermocouples of known calibration. Representative thermocouples should be calibrated from each lot of wires used for making base-metal thermocouples. Except for relatively low temperatures of exposure, base-metal thermocouples are subject to error upon reuse, unless the depth of immersion and temperature gradients of the initial exposure are reproduced.
Consequently base-metal thermocouples should be verified by the use of representative thermocouples and actual thermocouples used to measure specimen temperatures should not be verified at elevated temperatures. Base-metal thermocouples also should not be reused without clipping back to remove wire exposed to the hot zone and rewelding. Any reuse of basemetal thermocouples after relatively low-temperature use without this precaution should be accompanied by recalibration data demonstrating that calibration was not unduly affected by the conditions of exposure.
Noble metal thermocouples are also subject to errors due to contamination, etc., and should be periodically annealed and verified. Thermocouples should be kept clean prior to exposure and during use at elevated temperatures.
Measurement of the emf drift in thermocouples during use is difficult. When drift is a problem during tests, a method should be devised to check the readings of the thermocouples on the specimen during the test. For reliable calibration of thermocouples after use the temperature gradient of the testing furnace must be reproduced during the recalibration.
Temperature-measuring, controlling, and recording instruments should be verified periodically against a secondary standard, such as a precision potentiometer and if necessary re-calibrated. Lead-wire error should be checked with the lead wires in place as they normally are used.
1/500000 resolution, fully-closed control of Stress control, Strain control and Displacement control and stepless in the full measurement range
Pre-loaded ball screws driven by imported AC servo motor
USA Brand load cell for force measurement, Japanese photoelectrical encoder for displacement measurement and USA or PRC superior extensometer for extension measurement
|Capacity (kN)||50, 100|
|Calibration standard||ISO 7500, Class 1 / Class 0.5|
|Force range||0.2% ~ 100%FS / 0.4 ~ 100%FS|
|Force accuracy||±1.0% / ±0.5% of reading|
|Position accuracy||±0.50% of reading|
|Position resolution (μm)||0.025|
|Crosshead speed (mm/min)||0.001 ~ 500|
|Crosshead speed accuracy||within ±1% / ±0.5% of set speed|
|Power requirement||Three-phase, 380±10% VAC, 50/60Hz|